High profile acts of violence, particularly from terrorist groups such as ISIS, can confuse and frighten children who may feel in danger or worry that their friends or loved-ones are at risk. They will look to adults for information and guidance on how to react. Parents and school personnel can help children feel safe by establishing a sense of normalcy and security and talking with them about their fears. Here are seven ways to reassure children that they are not in danger and numerous suggested talking points to use with your children.
1. Reassure children that they are safe. Emphasize that adults are working to keep them safe. Validate their feelings. Explain that all feelings are okay when a tragedy occurs. Let children talk about their feelings, help put them into perspective, and assist them in expressing these feelings appropriately.
2. Make time to talk. Let their questions be your guide as to how much information to provide. Be patient. Children and youth do not always talk about their feelings readily. Watch for clues that they may want to talk, such as hovering around while you do the dishes or yard work. Some children prefer writing, playing music, or doing an art project as an outlet. Young children may need concrete activities (such as drawing, looking at picture books, or imaginative play) to help them identify and express their feelings.
3. Keep your explanations developmentally appropriate.
• Early elementary school children need brief, simple information that should be balanced with reassurances that their homes and schools are safe and that adults are there to protect them. Give simple examples of home and school safety like reminding children about exterior doors being locked, child monitoring efforts on the playground, and emergency drills practiced during the school day.
• Upper elementary and early middle school children will be more vocal in asking questions about whether they truly are safe and what is being done at their school. They may need assistance separating reality from fantasy. Discuss efforts of parents and school and community leaders providing safety.
• Upper middle school and high school students will have strong and varying opinions about the causes of violence in society. They will share concrete suggestions about how to make homes and schools safer and how to prevent tragedies in society. Emphasize the role that students have in maintaining safe homes, schools, and communities by following safety guidelines (e.g. not providing building access to strangers, being aware of their surroundings, reporting strangers on campus, reporting threats to the school safety made by students or community members, etc.), communicating any personal safety concerns to school administrators, and accessing support for emotional needs.
4. Review safety procedures. This should include procedures and safeguards at home and at school. Help children identify at least one adult in addition to their parents, at school and in the community, to whom they go if they feel threatened or at risk.
5. Observe children’s emotional state. Some children may not express their concerns verbally. Changes in behavior, appetite, and sleep patterns can indicate a child’s level of anxiety or discomfort. In most children, these symptoms will ease with reassurance and time. However, some children may be at risk for more intense reactions. Children who have had a past traumatic experience or personal loss, suffer from depression or other mental illness, or with special needs may be at greater risk for severe reactions than others. Seek the help of a mental health professional if you are at all concerned.
6. Limit television viewing of these events. Limit television viewing and be aware if the television is on in common areas. Developmentally inappropriate information can cause anxiety or confusion, particularly in young children. Adults also need to be mindful of the content of conversations that they have with each other in front of children, even teenagers, and limit their exposure to vengeful, hateful, and angry comments that might be misunderstood.
7. Maintain a normal routine. Keeping to a regular schedule can be reassuring and promote physical health. Ensure that children get plenty of sleep, regular meals, and exercise. Encourage them to keep up with their schoolwork and extracurricular activities but don’t push them if they seem overwhelmed.
Suggested Points to Emphasize When Talking to Children
- Homes and Schools are safe places. School staff work with parents and public safety providers (local police and fire departments, emergency responders, hospitals, etc.) to keep you safe.
- The home is safe because (cite specific school procedures).
- The school building is safe because … (cite specific school procedures).
- We all play a role in home, school, and community safety. Be observant and let an adult know if you see or hear something that makes you feel uncomfortable, nervous or frightened.
- There is a difference between reporting, tattling or gossiping. You can provide important information that may prevent harm either directly or anonymously by telling a trusted adult what you know or heard.
- Don’t dwell on the worst possibilities. Although there is no absolute guarantee that something bad will never happen, it is important to not worry about the unknown.
- Turn to prayer when you feel afraid. Pray with your family and pray brief, simple prayers in your heart during the day. Jesus is the Prince of Peace and He will give you His peace. Jesus said, over and over again, “Do not be afraid.”
- Your Guardian Angel is with you. Ask him to watch over you and guide you to be safe.
- Senseless violence is hard for everyone to understand. Doing things that you enjoy, sticking to your normal routine, and being with friends and family help make us feel better and keep us from worrying about the event.
- Sometimes people do bad things that hurt others. The group ISIS doesn’t believe that what they are doing is bad. Adults, especially military and government personnel, as well as faith leaders, are working hard to keep them from hurting others.
- Violence is never a solution to problems. Students can be part of the positive solution by praying and offering sacrifices for those involved with ISIS. Along with prayer, discussing and learning conflict mediation skills may help to turn the focus in a constructive direction.
NASP has additional information for parents and educators on school safety, violence prevention, children’s trauma reactions, and crisis response at www.nasponline.org. ©2006, National Association of School Psychologists, 4340 East West Highway #402, Bethesda, MD 20814
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